Background: The efficacy of particulate and non-particulate steroids in patients receiving epidural steroid injections remains unclear. Objective: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to compare the efficacy of particulate and non-particulate steroids in patients receiving epidural injections for radicular pain over 3 months. Study Design: Systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: We reviewed PubMed, PubMed Central, Scopus, Central Register of Clinical Trials of the Cochrane Collaboration, Google Scholar, and Directory of open access journals for trials..
Background: Opioid use, abuse, and adverse consequences, including death, have escalated at an alarming rate since the 1990s. In an attempt to control opioid abuse, numerous regulations and guidelines for responsible opioid prescribing have been developed by various organizations. However, the US opioid epidemic is continuing and drug dose deaths tripled during 1999 to 2015. Recent data show a continuing increase in deaths due to natural and semisynthetic opioids, a decline in methadone deaths, and..